In an unusual twist, a group of researchers has proposed a new definition of “chinese” that may be the most inclusive in terms of what the word means.
The new definition is part of an effort by the University of Toronto’s Department of Asian Studies to make sense of the meaning of the word, as well as other linguistic and cultural elements that define its use.
The study, which is co-authored by linguistics professor David C. Wills and research fellow Andrew Wong, is part the U of T’s International Research and Development (IRD) program.
Wong says the term “chine” has been used as an umbrella term for a range of ethnicities and cultures in the Chinese diaspora.
Wong’s research focuses on the cultural and linguistic meanings of the term in both Chinese and English.
“This is an attempt to put the word ‘chine’ in context,” Wong said in an interview.
“It’s not a completely new concept, but it’s a really interesting effort to make it more inclusive.”
The idea of a new “chining” definition comes as the United States and other nations around the world grapple with how to interpret and interpret Chinese language.
Wills, a professor of linguistics and philosophy at the University at Buffalo, is the lead author of a paper that was published in the Journal of Lingua-Linguistic Research last month that was titled “Chine: An International Approach to the Definition of Chinese.”
Will and Wong say the term has “a wide and complex range of meanings and has often been used to refer to a range, but a particular, Chinese ethnic group.”
“The term ‘chining’ is not a synonym for a particular ethnicity, but is used as a general term for all ethnic groups,” they wrote in their paper.
The term is “often used in contexts to describe ethnic groups that have historically been underrepresented in Western countries,” the authors wrote.
For example, they wrote that in the English language, chining can refer to an ethnic group whose members are more often associated with lower-status jobs and lower-income jobs.
Chining, Wong said, can also refer to the group of people who are most commonly seen as members of the ethnic group in question.
In this case, the term could refer to all ethnicities.
But Wong said the term is more applicable to Chinese-Americans, as Chinese-American culture is predominantly Anglo-Saxon.
He said the new definition, which he calls “Chining” but which is a hybrid of English “Ching” and Chinese, would also be applicable to other groups.
While the term may have its roots in Anglo-American Anglo-Chinese cultures, Wong says it has a “broad historical basis.”
For instance, in Chinese, the word “chinyu” refers to “the same person, family, clan or people.”
But “chinxing” refers more to the culture of a particular ethnic group, he said.
According to Wong, Chining is often used to describe people from certain ethnic groups who are stereotyped as “foreign” or “foreigner.”
The new definition also reflects how Chinese is viewed in the United Kingdom.
When the British government started to adopt a new policy in 2000 to restrict entry of Chinese students, Wong and Wills said it was an attempt “to avoid stigmatizing the Chinese people.”
The policy has now been expanded to include all foreign students in the country, including people from China.
Wong said this is a significant step forward for Chinese-British relations.
However, Wong acknowledges that “chiniing” may be used in a “negative sense.”
While Wong and Wong agree that Chining has a wide historical and cultural meaning, they also note that “Chinxing can also be used as part of a broader cultural critique of Chinese-Asian identity.”
In that case, Wong suggested Chining may also be the “purposeful misuse of the Chinese word for a specific ethnic group,” and not a “direct reference to a particular person, ethnic group or culture.”
This is, Wong believes, the case when Chining “may be used to dismiss or minimize Chinese-Canadian identities, as it may also serve to diminish the cultural, linguistic and historical contribution of Chinese Canadian identity.”
“This may also, at times, be used when an individual is targeted for stereotyping or discrimination based on their ethnicity, or on the colour of their skin,” Wong and the authors of the new paper write.
Other studies have found Chining can also describe the cultural values and social customs of an ethnic minority.
Among the most recent studies of Chining, Wills was commissioned to analyze a 2010 study published in The Journal of Language, Culture and Society and was told that “the term has been in widespread use by a variety of scholars and scholars